NOISY-LE-ROI COMMUNAL MONOGRAPH
I - Geographic part
The territory of the Municipality of Noisy-le-Roi looks rather like an irregular quadrilateral whose plan slopes from north to south following the slope of the Marly plateau. It is limited to the north by the territory of Etang-la-Ville; to the east, by that of Bailly. The third side of the quadrilateral, exposed to the south, is at the limit of the municipalities of Fontenay-le-Fleury, Rennemoulin and Villepreux. Finally the fourth side, to the west, touches the town of Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche.
The limits of the territory are generally conventional. However, to the north, they are indicated by the Royal Road then the Trembles Road. The redoubt of Noisy forms a terminal at the intersection of the northern and eastern limits of the town. The road to the old castle and the stream of the Bon Repos meadow separate a fairly large area of land between Bailly and Noisy-le-Roi.
The rû de Gally separates the territories of Noisy-le-Roi and Fontenay-le-Fleury, as the road from Villepreux to Tuilerie-Bignon separates the municipalities of Noisy-le-Roi and Villepreux.
The commune of Noisy-le-Roi extends on each side of the main communication path, number 70, from Versailles to Maule. It has only one hamlet: La Tuilerie-Bignon, half in Noisy-le-Roi, half in Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche.
Noisy-le-Roi currently has 634 inhabitants. The population seems to be decreasing in recent years. It was 713 inhabitants in 1881, 658 in 1886 and 638 in 1891.
The total area of the Municipality, according to the land register, is 542 hectares 64 ares 40 centiares.
On this surface there are approximately 250 hectares cultivated with cereals, 60 hectares of meadows, 60 hectares of industrial crops, 20 hectares of pastures, 15 hectares of market gardens and vegetable gardens, 9 hectares of pleasure gardens, park etc. and 103 hectares of forests (part of the forest of Marly.)
From an orographic point of view, the territory is divided into two very distinct parts. To the north, at an altitude of 163 meters, is a plateau covered almost entirely by the magnificent forest of Marly. To the south, a fairly extensive plain, a little hilly where the altitude is only 133 meters. We can somehow consider the territory of the municipality as an inclined plane extending fairly regularly from north to south and cut only by two parallel valleys and continuing one on the territory of Rennemoulin, the other on the territory of Villepreux .
The soil is very favorable for the cultivation of cereals and market garden plants. He is generally of good composition. The part of the territory bordering the rû de Gally has only excess limestone. In the high parts of the territory the terrain is sandy; in the plain, clay-limestone soils dominate.
It is recognized that the climate of Noisy-le-Roi is excellent. The altitude of the village, its exposure on the southern slope of a plateau, its proximity to the forest of Marly give the locality a lively and pure air. The Marly plateau and its high forests shelter Noisy from the cold northerly winds.
It is not the plain or the forest and yet one can breathe the air of both at will.
No waterway waters Noisy-le-Roi or its territory. The rû de Gally, a tributary of the Mauldre, serves only partly as a southern territorial limit. Two fairly abundant sources are dependent on this small stream; one, known as de l'Orme, is located one kilometer south of the village; the other, called "the source", is located to the west and supplies the only communal wash house.
As a result, Noisy-le-Roi was for a long time without having any water other than that of the wells. It was for this reason sometimes called Noisy-le-Sec. If there had been water in Noisy, Madame de Maintenon probably would not have gone to Saint-Cyr.
Since 1889 Noisy-le-Roi has been provided with a pipe bringing water from the Louveciennes reservoirs while ensuring the complete supply of the whole village by means of standpipes. In addition, concessions were taken by a number of owners so that today several houses have water inside them.
Originally Noisy-le-Roi was built on each side of the old road from Versailles to Maule. This route has become the main communication route, n ° 70. This road is cut in Noisy-le-Roi, by the main communication path n ° 161 known as Saint-Germain aux Petits-Près. These two beautiful roads have together on the territory of Noisy-le-Roi, a length of 5970 meters.
Six local roads with a total length of 1975 meters also ensure easy movement throughout the village.
Many rural roads, well maintained, allow access to the different parts of the territory.
Since 1883, the Grande-Ceinture railway line has directly linked Noisy-le-Roi to Versailles and Saint-Germain. Communications with Paris are also very easy either by Versailles or by the Etang-la-Ville.
Since 1887 Noisy-le-Roi has a post and telegraph office.
Finally on October 1, 1899 was inaugurated the tramway from Versailles to Maule.
It is therefore possible to hope that in the fairly near future Noisy-le-Roi will increase in population and its local wealth will thus follow an upward march.
State of the property - Main crops - Commerce - Commercial flows
Half of the territory of Noisy-le-Roi (250Ha, 80a, 89ca in 1898) belong to the same owner; 103Ha, 80a, 25ca are in the State (forest of Marly).
Or a total of 354Ha, 61.14. If we add the area taken up by roads, paths, squares, etc., i.e. around 15 hectares, there will be around 172 hectares left for the small property.
The cultivation of cereals takes precedence over all others; however, we note that it has been decreasing for several years and that market gardening and industrial beet farming have developed somewhat.
Fruit trees are very successful in Noisy-le-Roi and several owners know how to make great profit from their fruit.
Besides, the products of the soil, whatever they may be, flow to Versailles and Paris; these two towns, close to the place of production, offer very profitable outlets. A stud farm occupies several hectares of the territory of Noisy-le-Roi and it is not uncommon to see sometimes up to 200 boarding horses.
Sheep breeding is only practiced on the Noisy farm. The cows are few and only give the milk necessary for the consumption of the village. The farm alone also uses the oxen for cultivation. 24 oxen and 20 horses are employed throughout the year on this large farm.
The territory is quite full of game because of the proximity of the forest. Despite the surveillance of the forest guards, game (especially feathers) escapes to come and look for grain in the plain.
There are no animals or pests peculiar to the locality.
The occupation of the inhabitants is the cultivation of the soil. No mines, no quarries, no special industry.
Families are divided into two roughly equal categories: farm families and families whose members are employed in masonry. Young people who do not take the trade of carpenter or painter go to serve masons from the age of 14. They earn little at the start but have no learning to pay. They go to work in the city, either in Versailles or in Marly.
There are still some trellis workers in Noisy-le-Roi; but this profession does not occupy as many hands as in the past. The construction of the wire mesh gives way to the wooden trellises. So the trellis in the forest no longer do anything but split wood and make stakes.
In 1830 there was a spinning mill: the land register mentions it. It was located on the rû de Moulineaux, at the limit of the territory of Noisy near the rû de Gally. Today the buildings of this factory are transformed into a house of culture.
A brickyard also existed in La Tuilerie in the past. We can still see the remains of the ovens. But it was located on the territory of Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche.
II - Historical sketch
Originally Noisy-le-Roi must have been made up of a few houses scattered around the edge of the forest of Marly or rather Cruye. The inhabitants cultivated a few fields on the edge of the woods. They drew both products from the plains and from the forest.
The forest of Marly sheltered colleges of druids and was one of the many sanctuaries of our ancestors. However one does not find on the territory of Noisy-le-Roi any trace, any monument, any weapon of the Gallic and even Gallo-Roman times.
The village seems to have gained importance only from the 13th century, when it was set up as a parish. It then had only 250 inhabitants and was part of the diocese of Chartres, which stretched from the Seine to the Loire, on the borders of Touraine. The income of the church in Noisy at this time was 15 pounds.
Noisy was called successively Noisi, Val-de-Galie, Noésy, Noisy-en-Cruye, Noisy-l'Egalité and finally Noisy-le-Roi.
Under the feudal aspect Noisy was part of the county of Montfort and my châtellenie of Neauphle then, in the 15th century, of the châtellenie of Villepreux. It was the seat of a provost whose officers administered justice in the name of the lord of the place. The seigniory of Noisy fell mainly under the lords of the lords of Neauphle; however the counts of Montfort and the lords of Marly also had rights on this seigniory.
Information on the first lords of Noisy is rather vague. However, a list could be drawn up from the acts in which it is mentioned.
The oldest private lord of Noisy would be named in a cartular charter of the abbey of Vaux le Cernay, undated, but which must have been given from 1160 to 1196, concerning a donation made to this abbey by Hélène d ' Athies and of which, among others, Gauthier de Chaseron and Laudry de Noisy were witnesses.
In the 13th century the seigneury of Noisy was divided into several back-fiefdoms and transfers were quite frequent there.
From the acts attesting to these changes it results that in 1208 Simon de Noisy, a pupil, was the owner of the income of the country.
Then around this same time, Pierre de Maule obtained the domain of Noisy-en-Cruye from the county of Montfort. Mathieu de Marly was the executor of Pierre de Maule's will.
In 1241 Pierre de Galon, knight, and Marguerite, his wife, sell for 70 pounds parisis to Pierre de Noisy, 8 pounds of income assigned to the fief that Mathieu de Marly had in Meulan. In May 1245 Pierre de Noisy, gives this annuity to his niece, Sédille, daughter of Guillaume de Noisy, nun of the abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs, with the consent of Bouchard de Marly.
These lords would have succeeded Hugues de Noisy (1247) then Ansel de Noisy (1250) then Jean de Noisy (1255)
In 1267, Robert de Noisy, Chevalier made a donation to the abbey of Joyenval.
The de la Villeneuve family, one of the most illustrious in the Chartres region, succeeds these first lords of Noisy.
This stronghold of Villeneuve would be found to have existed near Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche.
In 1270, Pierre de la Villeneuve, squire, was Lord of Noisy and of Bailly en Cruye in part.
Philippe de la Villeneuve, his son, squire, qualifying himself lord of Bailly en Cruye, in part, of Chêne-Rogneux (commune of Grosrouvre) of Goupillières and other places. He owned most of the Val de Galie. He lived in 1285 and had as his successor son Robert de la Villeneuve. The members of this family who later owned Noisy were:
Jean de la Villeneuve (1366)
John II de la Villeneuve
Guillaume de la Villeneuve
Simon de la Villeneuve, died in January 1491 and was buried in the parish church of Villepreux.
Simon left an only son who was Guillaume II de la Villeneuve. He died on November 15, 1516 and was succeeded by his eldest son Martin de la Villeneuve.
This family of Villeneuve died around 1559, but from 1526 the land of Noisy had passed by acquisition from the heirs of Guillaume de la Villeuneuve to Messire Guillaume Poyet for then the king's lawyer in the parliament of Paris, baron of Beynes and abbot of Bardones . This lord of Noisy was in 1535. First president of Brittany and President in the Court of the Parliament of Paris. In 1541 he was qualified as a knight - chancellor of France, baron of Beynes, lord of Noisy-en-Cruye and other places. It was he who was chosen by Louise of Savoy, mother of François I to support the lawsuit she brought against the Constable of Bourbon. He skillfully performed this task and was showered with honor. Slavishly devoted to the court and hoping to obtain by his support the cardinal's hat, he made himself the instrument of the constable of Montmorency's hatred against Admiral Chabot; but he was in turn accused of embezzlement, arrested in 1542, stripped of all these charges (1545) and fined 100,000 francs. He died around 1548. It was he who had prepared the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, issued in 1539, and which limited ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
A few years later in 1552, the seigneury of Noisy had passed into the hands of the Duchesses of Etampes, Anne de Pisseleu, favorite of King François Ier. She had contributed much to the disgrace of Chancellor Poyet, to avenge Admiral Chabot, her relative, and the Queen of Navarre, sister of François I, seconded her on this occasion with no less eagerness.
After the death of François Ier, Diane de Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois and mistress of Henri II, was given all the lands and lordships owned by the Duchess of Etampes who had gradually lost all her credit under this new reign.
Diane de Poitiers is described as Dame de Noisy in documents dated November 14 and 15, 1560 passed before Mathurin Charruau, clerk, sworn tabellion: in the seigneury of Noisy.
Albert de Gondy, Count of Retz, then Marshal of France, succeeded the Duchess of Valentinois in the seigneury of Noisy.
He acquired around 1571 the seigneury of Bailly-en-Cruye or obtained it like that of Noisy, from the favor of Queen Catherine de Medici and King Charles IX.
Gondy's family was originally from the city of Florence in Italy. One of its members, Antoine de Gondy, went to France with Catherine de Médicis, was naturalized there and became Maître d 'hôtel under Henri II.
He had a son, Albert de Gondy, born in 1522 died in 1602, who married in 1565, Claude Catherine de Clermont Tonnerre, baroness of Retz. It was one of Charles IX's oldest favorites; he fulfilled the functions of general of the galleys (1579-1598) and passed, with Tavannes, for having reconciled Saint-Barthélemy.
Albert de Gondy followed Henry III to Poland and returned when this prince was called to the throne of France.
Barely seated on the throne Henri III recognized Albert de Gondy, Marshal of France in 1574 and it was also around this time that Gondy received the barony of Marly-le-Châtel.
In 1574 he resided in Bailly in the castle of this place while a castle of Noisy was built for him with the most beautiful residence if ever there was one, and that he lived with his family from 1589.
Interviews took place in the castle, 1592, between the Legate of Pope Sixtus V, Cardinal Cajetau and Pierre, Cardinal de Gondy. It was agreed there that one would propose to the king "to affirm his intention to become Catholic and to be educated for that" These proposals were listened to, because the following year the conversion of the king took place and peace disarmed the parties. .
At the beginning of the 17th century, this stately home was abandoned by the descendants of those who had built it. It was sold in 1619, to Henri and Jean François de Gondy. Henry having died in 1622, Jean François de Gondy was crowned first archbishop of Paris and became lord of the castles of Bailly, Noisy, and other places. But he cared little for good and he died in 1654 leaving as heirs his brother Philippe Emmanuel de Gondy, Count of Joigny and his nephew Henri de Gondy, Duke of Retz, who on June 28, 1656 sold Noisy, Bailly, Marly - the King and the Essarts, to François Bossuet, King's Secretary for the direction of finances.
This one ; last lord of Noisy, was the benefactor; but his great gifts ruined him and he was forced to sell the Castle that Louis XIV bought in 1676.
Guards under the command of a captain were installed there.
It was then that the widow of the poet Scarron, Madame de Maintenon (Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de) second daughter of Louis XIV, requested and obtained from the king the Château de Noisy to set up her boarding school for young noble and poor girls. This boarding school had started in Montmorency then it had been transported to Rueil in a house which could accommodate sixty young girls (1682). The success of this work was so great that it was necessary to look for larger premises. It was then that Louis XIV had the Château de Noisy appropriated to receive a hundred young girls (February 1684). This number was soon exceeded "Judge my pleasure," wrote Mme de Maintenon to her brother on April 7, 1685, when I come back along the avenue, followed by a hundred and twenty-four young ladies. A general organization plan had been adopted. The pupils were divided into four classes, according to their age and their education. They wore a uniform.
From all over the Court came to see the daughters of Madame de Maintenon. The king himself repeated his visits. He was greatly preoccupied with the state of the nobility, who complained of being sacrificed; Louis XIV had just founded the Hôtel des Invalides for old or wounded officers and created the companies of Cadets for the sons of gentlemen. It is with the same thought that the establishment of Saint-Cyr is attached. The plan had first been to receive five hundred young ladies, who would be brought up until the age of fifteen; but it was decided in the King's Council that it was preferable to bring up only two hundred and fifty young girls until the age of twenty and to constitute for them a dowry which they would receive at that time.
Noisy who lacked water, could not satisfy such a vast plan. A domain was bought around Versailles (April 9, 1685). The buildings of Saint-Cyr were then started. On August 2, 1686, the community of Noisy moved there. From then on the castle of Noisy was abandoned. With Madame de Maintenon he had lost his splendor. From 1685 to 1690 it was visited only at rare intervals by the King or by his family. In 1700 part of the venery was gathered there.
On February 21, 1708, the King donated the castle to M. de Chamillac, Secretary of State at the War Department; but the latter, having found the expenditure required for the restoration of this vast building too considerable, refused the royal offer.
Abandoned by the princes of the blood, in particular by the Duke of Burgundy, all affected by an untimely death, the Château de Noisy fell into ruins.
In 1732, Louis XV gave it to M. Le Roy, lieutenant of his game wardens at the Parc de Versailles, on condition that he would have it demolished at his own expense, which was carried out immediately.
With the remains of the castle, M. Le Roy had a beautiful house built a few hundred meters below, which still exists today.
This house was sold in 1749 to Mr. Bachelier, adviser and first valet de chambre to the King, who enlarged and decorated the gardens.
Today it is the property of Mr. Tambour.
It is a doubly historic residence, because it is there that on June 22, 1792, Geneviève de Gramont, countess of Ossun, lady of the Queen's finery, niece of M. de Choiseul was arrested. This woman had been in the Queen's service since 1780 and Marie Antoinette had a great deal of affection for her. Before leaving Paris on the evening of June 20, 1791, Marie Antoinette thought of her friend and wrote her the following note:
This lundy 20 in the evening
All the duties together prevented me from informing you of our departure. Yet I risked getting you to make an errand if only to get you out of here. I have very little time to myself and a lot of business. I therefore limit myself to assuring you of my eternal and inviolable friendship. God grant that we can be reunited promptly. I kiss you.
(Coüard, an autograph by Marie Antoinette.)
On June 22, 1791 Mme d'Ossun was arrested and taken to Versailles. She was accused of having known about the royal family's plan to flee. She managed to exonerate herself and was released after trial. Three years later she was arrested again, tried on 8 Thermidor Year II and sentenced to death for having conspired against the state.
As another curiosity of Noisy-le-Roi we must also mention the cedar, a magnificent tree which is in the park of Vaucheron, at the edge of the road to Versailles. He is the father of the famous cedar brought to the Jardin des Plantes in Paris in 1754 by Bernard de Jussieu.
M. le Marquis de Cherville, former collaborator of Dumas father, editor of the newspaper "le temps", author of numerous works relating to the countryside, to animals, who died in Noisy-le-Roi on May 10, 1898, devoted to this tree a most interesting article. The cedar of Noisy-le-Roi is higher and more beautiful than that of the Museum. It measures 7m10 in circumference at the base.
The Cordeliers Convent of Noisy-le-Roi
Around 1589, at the same time as the Château de Noisy was being built. Albert de Gondy, Marshal de Retz, had a church built to serve as a parish in place of the old one which was near the Castle and of which he made the chapel of his new home.
This chapel was first served by Minimes religious; but these, driven out by the aforesaid marshal, were replaced by Cordeliers 1599. From this period dates the foundation of the Cordeliers convent in Noisy. Twelve monks were installed there and the founding act was drawn up in Noésy on September 21, 1599 in the presence of Henri de Gondy, Bishop of Paris, of Jean Constant, secretary of the Lord of Noésy and of François Giraud, concierge of the castle.
Among the various clauses of this act we notice: "The said lord donated 2000 beans, 2000 côterets, 4 muids wheat of meslin, 800 pounds of perpetual annual income.
“These resources constituted the firm income of the Convent to which were added the tithes, then successively the following donors:
In 1697 100 pounds of annuity by Gille Robert
500 pounds of annuity by Adam Chéret, porter of the Porte de Paris in Villepreux
100 pounds of annuity by the same "to use in own kind"
In 1716 45 pounds of annuity by Pierre de Paris, owner in Beauregard for 30 low masses.
In 1730 1,100 pounds by the Veuve Tavernier for a mass every Friday
In 1750 600 books for serving the chapel of the Château de Marly
In 1780 150 pounds of annuity by "Madame"
In 1790 an income of 190 livres by Pierre Boulogne, plowman in Launay, near Arpajon
We were then approaching the revolution and Father Jean de la Place guardian of the convent as well as
the other brothers were dispersed soon after.
Of the convent there remains a house, the shell of which has undergone only a few transformations; its monastic aspect and above all the interior layout remind us of its former guests.
Bought by M. Regnault, one of the benefactors of Noisy, then sold to M. Papaut who sold it to a dramatic artist, Melle Dika Petit, this property, with its gardens, its stepped park, from which the view extends on Versailles, Saint-Cyr, Fontenay, les Clayes, today belongs to Monseigneur Goux, bishop of Versailles.
Is she called to return to what she was a hundred years ago? It is the secret of the future.
III - Public education
The first school was installed in Noisy, around 1589, in a Pavilion, one of the four extramural parallels of Albert de Gondy's castle.
This lord had given it to the town for the establishment of the Sisters of Charity "to teach children". We cannot, I believe, trace back the existence of a school in the town.
This school was managed successively by the sisters Modeste, Geneviève, Charlotte, Catherine….
In a marriage certificate of February 26, 1686 we find the following mention: The marriage was made in the presence of…. And discreet person Marie Givon, mistress of the Charitable Schools of Noisy and Bailly.
The sisters were replaced in 1791 by teachers who ran the mixed school until 1869. That same year, the pavilion having been demolished, the school was installed in a new building, avenue Regnault, where the ground floor in entire, is occupied by the classroom. Above is sufficient accommodation without being too large, well floored and suitably distributed. To the north and to the south two beautiful gardens decorate it pleasantly.
In 1869 a free school for girls was founded and managed by private teachers until 1875, when it was transformed into a public school.
The municipality bought this building for 5000 francs although this room was insufficient and did not present any of the conditions for a good installation. Development expenses were easy there on several occasions, but without satisfactory results. Pupils and teachers were very badly there because of the lack of space, air and light.
In 1887, this house was sold and the girls 'school was transferred to avenue Régnault in the room previously occupied by the boys' school.
They moved on the same date in the vast and beautiful premises located avenue de la gare, built in the center of the country and inaugurated on May 22, 1887 by the prefect of Seine-et-Oise.
These constructions include the Boys' School, a nursery school, staff accommodation and the Town Hall. They are completely isolated from neighboring dwellings; the fresh air and the light arrive there from all sides; the courtyards and the courtyards are very large; sufficient gardens.
The current girls' and children's schools are under the direction of the Teacher. A service woman takes care of the very young children at the nursery school.
Research carried out in the municipal archives shows that the salary of the teacher in 1791 was approximately 610 pounds and was broken down as follows:
Fixed treatment 300 lb
School fees 310 pounds
Total 610 pounds
To this sum were added the salaries of beadle, cantor, carillonneur, secretary.
This figure did not change until 1833, when the fixed salary fell to 200 francs, but the school fee produced about 600f so that the total salary amounted to 800 francs and was thus maintained until 1850.
From 1850 to 1882, the teacher's salary amounted to 1200f and 1500f
4 7bre 1791 Fontaine François 1791-1793
Dubois Jean 1793-1794
La Motte Jean Baptiste 1794-1802
Macé Louis Joseph 1802-1804
François Louis fountain 1804-1815
Lizerai Nicolas 1815-1820
Ferton François Charles 1820-1829
Carpenter Eustache Pierre 1829-1834
Bousquin Louis Paterne 1834-1841
Moyat Prosper Adolphe 1841-1845
Sergeant Jean Pierre Vast 1845-1847
Delamotte Louis Joseph 1847-1865
Normand Adoplhe 1865-1878
Cauras Julien 1878-1884
Lesserteur Alexandre 1884-1896
Crété Charles 1896 -
Between 1589 and 1791 (Sœurs Modeste
Miss Jacquot Zélie 1869 Free school
Fabrequettes Marie Fanny 1875 Public school
Lebel Zélie 1876-1896 Public school
Mme Desjardins 1896-1897 Public school
Miss Tessereau 1897 Public school
Courses for adults have been given during the winter at the boys' school since 1896.
Public lectures are also held there frequently.
A friendly association of pupils and former pupils of the boys' school has been operating regularly since that time. It provides young men with frequent meetings. It allows them to make an annual excursion to a picturesque region of France. In short, she continues the moralizing work started at school.
In Noisy-le-Roi, September 25, 1899
Source: departmental archives of Yvelines, municipal monograph of Noisy-le-Roi written by the Teacher in 1900 for the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1900, document number: 1T / MONO 9 , transcription Mathieu Thédié